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Hot Tub Wiring Diagram


hot-tub-wiring Summary: Electrical Codes and Details for Spa and Hot Tub Wiring. Essentials for your installation, including the required gfci ground fault protection and circuit wire size*.

Electrical Wiring Guide and Information for Hot Tubs and Spas

This information serves as a typical Spa or Hot Tub wiring diagram to help inform you about the process and electrical wiring components.
This article contains general information and does not focus on, or is it specific to one particular make or model. There may be variations between this information and the specific spa you choose to purchase. Please contact your spa dealer with any questions regarding your spa or see the owner’s manual.
Please take the time to read carefully all the instructions that come with your Hot Tub or Spa which are specific to your Make and Model.
When the hot tub or spa is properly installed and maintained, it will provide years of enjoyable, trouble free operation.
This information serves as a typical Spa or Hot Tub wiring diagram to help inform you about the process and electrical wiring components. This article contains general information and does not focus on, or is it specific to one particular make or model. There may be variations between this information and the specific spa you choose to purchase. Please contact your spa dealer with any questions regarding your spa or see the owner’s manual. Please take the time to read carefully all the instructions that come with your Hot Tub or Spa which are specific to your Make and Model. When the hot tub or spa is properly installed and maintained, it will provide years of enjoyable, trouble free operation.

Hot Tubs and Spas - NEC Electrical Codes


680.12 and 680.42 A disconnect must be installed within sight of Hot Tub.

680.44 GFCI protection is required for all Hot Tubs and spas.

680.44(A) A Packaged Hot Tub Assembly Unit with a GFCI requires a GFCI Protected Circuit.

680.71 All 125-volt receptacles not exceeding 30 amperes installed within 6 feet of the inside walls of a hydro-massage bathtub shall be GFCI protected.

NOTE: This is a partial list of electrical codes. Other codes may apply. Some codes may be updated.
See the Electrical Code area for more information: Home Electrical Codes
hot-tub-gfci-disconnect-switch

Electrical Considerations for Hot Tubs and Spas Hot-Tub-wiring
Important Safety Instructions

Read the entire owner's manual, safety instructions and warning notices before operating the spa.

When installing the spa, all basic safety precautions should always be followed including the following information pertaining to electrical:

Warning: A grounding wire connector is provided on this unit to connect a minimum No. 8 AWG (8.4 mm2 solid copper conductor between this unit and any metal equipment, metal enclosures of electrical equipment, metal water pipe or conduit within 5 feet (1.5 m) of the unit.


Danger: Risk Of Electric Shock: Install the spa at least 5 feet (1.5M) from all metal surfaces. As an alternative a spa may be installed within 5 feet (1.5M) of metal surfaces if, in accordance with the National Electrical Code, each metal surface is permanently connected by a minimum No. 8 AWG (8.4 mm2) solid copper conductor to the wire connector on the terminal box that is provided for this purpose.

Danger:
Risk Of Electric Shock: Do not permit any electric appliance, such as a light, hair dryer, telephone, radio, or television, within 5 feet (1.5 m) of the spa. Never operate any electrical appliances from inside the spa or while wet.


Consider a Spa or Hot Tub Equipped With Safety Devices
It is a good idea to consider a hot tub or spa which is equipped with the following safety features:
Over Heat Protection- An electronic high limit switch, located in the spa water, that shuts off the heater, pumps and accessories when the water temperature exceeds 112° F (44°C). This function resets when the spa water temperature drops below 109° F (42°C). Heater High Limit Protection- An electronic high limit switch, located on the heater barrel, which turns off the heater and low speed pump if it senses a temperature of 119°F (48°C) or greater. Power to the spa must be interrupted to reset this safety device.

Heater Dry Run Protection- A water flow sensor that prevents the heater from turning on until there is sufficient water flow.

Pump Dry Run Protection- If the pump runs for 5 minutes and flow is not detected the pump is turned off.

Smart Winter Mode- This freeze protection system will activate the jet pumps for 1 minute every 2 hours or less when the temperature in the equipment compartment drops to 55° F (12°C) or less. Once the freeze protection system has started, it will remain active for a 24-hour period.

Timeouts – The pumps, blower, & light turn off automatically after 30 minutes of operation.

When using this electrical equipment, basic safety precautions should always be followed, including the following:

Read And Follow All Instructions

1) A colored terminal or a terminal marked G, GR, Ground, Grounding, or the symbol is located inside the supply terminal box or compartment. To reduce the risk of electric shock, this terminal must be connected to the grounding means provided in the electric supply service panel with a continuous copper wire equivalent in size to the circuit conductors supplying this equipment.

2) At least two lugs marked "BONDING LUGS" are provided on the external surface or on the inside of the supply terminal box/compartment. To reduce the risk of electric shock, connect the local common bonding grid in the area of the hot tub or spa to these terminals with an insulated or bare copper conductor not smaller than No. 6 AWG.

3) All field-installed metal components such as rails, ladders, drains or other similar hardware within 3 meters of the spa or hot tub shall be bonded to the equipment grounding bus with copper conductors not smaller than No. 6 AWG.

Installation Instructions

Read all instructions in the manual prior to having your spa installed at the selected location, whether indoors or outdoors.

Improper Installation May Result In Equipment Damage And Void The Warranty.

Please consult your spa guide for specific Surface And Pad Requirements

Electrical Installation Guidelines
:

Improper Installation May Result In Equipment Damage And Void The Warranty

NOTE: Follow the instructions in the Manual that came with your ho tub or spa. Do not turn on electric power to your spa until told to do so according to the instructions in your manual.

1) Many manufacturers strongly recommend that only a licensed and bonded electrician perform the electrical installation. Improper electrical connections may damage the equipment, cause injury, cause a fire, and void your spa warranty.

2) It is the responsibility of the spa owner to ensure that a qualified electrician performs the electrical installation. This installation must be in accordance with the National Electrical Code; local and state electrical codes; and the manufacturer’s instructions.

3) Most hot tub and spa equipment has been designed to operate on 240 volts, 60 Hz alternating current electrical wiring.

4) The spa must be connected to a dedicated branch circuit.

5) The electrical supply for this spa must include a suitably rated switch or circuit breaker to open all ungrounded supply conductors to comply with Section 422-20 of the National Electric Code (NEC).
A disconnect switch must be located where visible, not less than 5 feet from the spa and not to exceed 50 feet from the spa. This requirement may be filled with the GFCI circuit breaker and sub-panel.

6) The electrical circuit to the spa must include a Class A type Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI) as required by the NEC for the electrical-wiring.

7) All supply wires must be copper and rated at a minimum 194°F (90°C).

8) Input Power Wiring and Circuit Breaker Selection:

Important Information Regarding Electrical Installation!

Mode Selecting Jumpers:

As shown in the tables below, some makes and models of hot tubs and spas come with a jumper in the equipment control box that configures the Mode of Operation. Here is a typical scenario when a hot tub or spa uses this feature - In the HC Mode the heater will operate with two pumps operative. In the LC Mode the heater turns off if either pump is in high speed or if the blower is turned on.


   
H C Mode
   
Equipment type Electrical Rating Branch Circuit Circuit Breaker Wire Size
1 pump 240V 32A 3 Wire + ground 40A* #8 AWG
1 pump with blower 240V 40A 3 Wire + ground 50A* #6 AWG
2 pumps 240V 45A 3 Wire + ground 60A* #6 AWG
2 pumps with blower 240V 45A 3 Wire + ground 60A* #6 AWG
3 pumps 240V 45A 3 Wire + ground 60A* #6 AWG

   
L C Mode
   
Equipment type Electrical Rating Branch Circuit Circuit Breaker Wire Size
1 pump 240V 24A 3 Wire + ground 30A* #10 AWG
1 pump with blower 240V 24A 3 Wire + ground 30A* #10 AWG
2 pumps 240V 32A 3 Wire + ground 40A* #8 AWG
2 pumps with blower 240V 32A 3 Wire + ground 40A* #8 AWG
3 pumps 240V 32A 3 Wire + ground 40A* #8 AWG

Note: *Circuit breaker amperages may vary according to the area of installation. Please check local electrical codes for electrical wiring and to verify requirements and assure compliance. Spas purchased not fully equipped may operate at a reduced total amp rating thus allowing installation of a lower rated GFCI circuit breaker and service installation. Please be aware that the Min. Wire Size does not account for the distance of electrical wiring run to the spa from the service input.

Only a licensed electrician should size and install the electrical connections to the Spa.

The Equipment Type column does not include the circulation pump


General Procedure and Instructions to hook-up your spa:

1) Remove the screws holding the equipment access panel to the front of the spa cabinet and set the panel aside.

2) Loosen the 2 screws on the bottom front of the blue, equipment control enclosure.

3) Use ¾“ flexible, non-metallic conduit for a spa requiring #10 AWG or #8 AWG wire or 1” flexible non-metallic conduit for a spa requiring #6 AWG wire. Run the conduit from the power source to the spa, through the hole in the left or right front corner and into the equipment control box.

4) After pulling all four wires through the conduit and into the equipment control box, connect them to the proper terminals as indicated by the wiring diagram on the lid of the equipment control box.

5) Configure the jumpers to the correct position as indicated by the wiring diagram on the lid of the equipment control box. Make sure the wires are properly tightened.

6) Close the lid on the equipment control box and secure with screws.
7) Electrical hook-up is now complete. Do not replace the equipment door yet.


TroubleShooting:

Refer to the manufacture of your hot tub or spa for specific information.

* PLEASE NOTE: This may not be an exhaustive list of devices, circuits or electrical codes. Plan your electrical project with your local building department who will make sure to include all applicable national and local codes that will apply to your project for your area. Obtaining a building permit and having the work inspected is essential for all home projects.


related

Installing 220V to a Spa


I've heard more than once, that one must install a GFI Box, close to the spa, then it should run to the electrical panel box.
What is your take on this, since I have to pump motors?
Tony

Yes Tony, that is correct.
The NEC code states that the disconnect must be within sight of the hot tub or spa. Additionally, all the equipment that is associated with the hot tub or spa must be protected by GFI, as your inspector will be sure to point out.

More About wiring a hot tub


Learn more about wiring a hot tub




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